In this episode of Intelligence Matters, host Michael Morell interviews creator and environmentalist Bill McKibben relating to the nationwide security implications of climate exchange, together with how present developments, if unchecked, would possibly well lead to future catastrophes. McKibben explains why taking sure actions immediately and for the next ten years is crucial in train to forestall mass migrations, prick shortages and lethal droughts. He shares his views on the troubling parallels between climate exchange and doubtless accelerating technologies take care of genetic modification.
- Local climate and mass migrations: “We now have seen immense shifts in how water moves around the planet on yarn of heat air holds more water vapor than chilly, and as a result, we query immense will enhance in drought in dry areas and with it these wide and immoral wildfires. And then we query immense will enhance in precipitation, downpour, flood in wet areas. And all this stuff are combining already to accept immense human charges, together with the early stages of what most of us predict will doubtless be by a long way the excellent migrations in human history as of us hover areas which have merely change into too hot or too salty or too flooded or too dry to allow them to dash on residing there. And I construct now not ought to bid you what the nationwide security, worldwide security implications of that many people on the dash will doubtless be.”
- 2020 election stakes: “We’re previous the level the attach stopping climate exchange is on the menu. However if we construct now not conclude that, then, as you bid, we’re already starting attach to dash previous a series of tipping facets which would possibly well be irreversible. Nobody has a opinion for freezing the Arctic now that it be melted. So 2030 is a necessary and nearly literal deadline. And also you know adequate about politics and government to know that while that you simply can take care of something to occur in 2030, you’d better birth in on it. I’m with these these that speak that the election of 2020 in this country is at risk of be going to be a really grand one we ever had. And one in every of the causes is, perchance the preeminent reason is, if we construct now not accept it excellent very lickety-split, our potentialities of getting it excellent scurry by incessantly.”
Intelligence Matters: Bill McKibben
Producer: Olivia Gazis
MICHAEL MORELL: Bill, welcome to Intelligence Matters. It is a long way terribly excellent to have you on the indicate.
BILL MCKIBBEN: It be an precise pleasure to be with you.
MICHAEL MORELL: You perceive, I wished to have you on since I read your most modern e book over the holiday season in December. However unfortunately, COVID and some various things obtained in the vogue. So I’m so joyful we were ready to mark this work.
I ought to unexcited bid our listeners that the e book I’m talking about – Yes, the holiday season. It became a huge time to read your e book – I are searching out for to bid our people that the e book printed remaining 300 and sixty five days is titled “Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out?” And I desire my listeners to know that a podcast on nationwide security – what’s a podcast on nationwide security talking about this e book for?
And it be my peep that nationwide security is ready each threats to our nation and about threats to our of us. And that is what I thought about as I grew to change into each page of your e book as I read it. So that’s why I wished to have you on. You focus on about two crucial concerns in your e book. One is climate exchange. The different is is technology. I are searching out for to primarily level of curiosity on climate exchange, but I conclude are searching out for to ask you some questions about technology as successfully. So let me let me birth, Bill, by asking: what led you to put in writing the e book?
BILL MCKIBBEN: Well, you know, I’d written the first e book about climate exchange, a e book called, “The Pause of Nature,” serve in, judge it or now not, 1989. So I’ve followed this most engrossing of subject matters for a extremely very prolonged time – in actual fact, since it became a public topic. And I felt take care of we necessary to accept a sense of the attach we stood three many years later. And naturally, the news is largely immoral. I mean, what were warnings in the gradual 1980s about what would occur if we didn’t utilize this seriously, have by now change into bulletins from the front line in a planet that’s more and more under siege from adjustments in the climate.
And I mean, as you were reading it over the holiday season, which seems a extremely very prolonged time ago, it be now not easy to be aware now, but 2020 began with the spectacle of the continent of Australia half burning to the floor. We’re a long way along in this yarn now.
MICHAEL MORELL: So what’s the bill what’s the general theme of the e book?
BILL MCKIBBEN: Well, I whisper if there would possibly be a theme, it be to let of us perceive each the attach we salvage ourselves, which is in a extremely advanced speak, previous the level the attach we can conclude world warming, on the level the attach perchance we can unexcited conclude it immediate of decreasing our civilisations off on the knees, but excellent if we dash very rapid.
That became one level, but the various became to utilize a undercover agent at and abet of us know the intention we obtained to this level. And I secure that there is a deep connection with the, successfully, with the dash in direction of societies that worshipped markets, that devalued collective motion and government motion, that roughly world peep that began in the Reagan era and the Thatcher era, the one who said that markets solve all concerns.
I mean, look, this has now not been this has now not been a legit 300 and sixty five days for that thought. What did the pandemic narrate us along with climate exchange? It be that there are concerns that will maybe well excellent be solved after we act together. Ronald Reagan feeble to — his huge laugh line in all his speeches became, “The 9 scariest words in the English language are, ‘I’m from the federal government and I’m here to abet'” – ha, ha, ha. However in actual fact, the scariest words in the English language flip out to be, ‘We now have poke out of ventilators; The hillside in the serve of your private home is on hearth.’
MICHAEL MORELL: Yeah. So, Bill, you write in the e book about something that you simply call ‘leverage.’ What is that? And why is that crucial?
BILL MCKIBBEN: We live at a 2nd when each mistake will get magnified. So, I mean, look, it became utterly doable for human beings to screw up in each construct of ideas at various facets in our history. However our numbers were smaller and our technology much less all-encompassing so, you know, it didn’t topic in moderately the same intention. There became nothing that the Holy Roman emperor would possibly well conclude that will maybe well exchange the P.H. of the oceans, that will maybe well alter the temperature of the environment, that will maybe well melt the ice caps.
We now have got, between our numbers and our technological reach, the means now to mark adjustments which would possibly well be on an inconceivable scale. And too worthy of that leverage additionally exists in too few fingers. I mean, we know, I’m jumpy, in our country that too many selections accept made by a diminutive coterie of these that regulate a immense quantity of our wealth and hence our political vitality.
So in each intention, we’re at a duration of over-leverage, it seems to me. And and in actual fact, we have now to figure out how one can serve off some, which is a now not easy thing for humans to conclude, but now not an very unlikely one.
You perceive, we even have some rising technologies which would possibly well be various than the ones that we’re feeble to. The engineers have dropped the worth of a solar panel or a wind turbine 90 p.c in the the relaxation decade. And that is really excellent on yarn of if we wished to, we would possibly well dash lickety-split to deploy them. And they accept quite a bit much less carbon than burning oil and fuel. However they additionally, in one wrong intention, lower leverage, too.
I mean, look, you suspect quite a bit about nationwide security. So that you simply know the intention in which worthy unearned vitality [is] concentrated in the fingers of these that honest occur to manage the small deposits of hydrocarbons on which we rely. I mean, that’s why we hear to the Koch brothers. They’re our excellent political gamers and additionally our excellent oil and fuel barons. That’s the reason we hear to the king of Saudi Arabia. It be now not take care of he’s thought up some engrossing new thought about governance – they lop of us’s heads off with a sword, you know – but as prolonged as they regulate this thing on which we rely, they’ve outsized vitality. However all people has some sun and some wind, and transferring in these instructions will abet rebalance us in a few ideas.
MICHAEL MORELL: So, Bill, I are searching out for to dig down, if it be OK, a runt bit bit into climate exchange. And I bet I are searching out for to birth out by asking you: when did we mark that we had a declare with greenhouse gases and then the attach are we this day? And and the intention in which did we accept here from that 2nd of discovering that we had a declare?
BILL MCKIBBEN: Just correct search files from and it lets us focus on about each construct of engrossing history. You perceive, humans began changing the atmospheric chemistry about 300 years ago after we started burning coal on a blooming scale. And that is honest been growing ever since. It became in the gradual 19th century that the first person to alert us that in actual fact this would possibly well maybe well in precise time trigger precise anxiousness – the huge Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, who received the Nobel for various work, managed to foretell with with outstanding accuracy, since he did not have computers to work with, about how worthy the temperature would boost.
And no-one paid that worthy attention to it for among the 20th century on yarn of we did not have computing vitality blooming adequate to in actual fact figure out the attach the threat strains lay. However in the 1980s, scientists in actual fact began to be ready to form out this declare. And it became in these years that we began to accept the first announcements.
An crucial 2nd came in 1988, when NASA scientist Jim Hansen testified forward of Congress that climate exchange became precise and unsafe and underway. Now what we now know, thanks to huge investigative reporting by many of your peers on the L.A. Cases, Columbia Journalism College and in various areas, what we now know is that the fossil fuel industry had known about this in that very same duration of time in the 1980s. They’d excellent scientists and their product became carbon. So that they were studying it and developing with the same conclusions.
We know, for instance, that Exxon scientists predicted with heavenly accuracy what the temperature and the CO2 concentration would possibly well be in 2020. What they didn’t conclude became bid the the relaxation of us. They engaged in, successfully, in a wide conducting of disinformation all the intention in which during the industry, spending billions of greenbacks in train to cloud the image. And so we have now wasted 30 years in this utterly pointless debate about whether or now not or now not climate exchange became, quote, “Accurate,” unquote – a debate that every body facets knew the answer to before every part. It be fully 1 of them became fascinating to lie. And that lie turns out to be possibly the most consequential lie in human history, on yarn of we would possibly well now not accept these 30 years serve.
So the attach we stand now is that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, which, forward of the commercial revolution became about 275 substances per million, is now successfully north of 415 substances per million. After all, in remaining month it hit a brand new myth, nearly about four hundred and eighteen substances per million.
That doesn’t sound take care of a immense exchange; we’re measuring it in substances per million, but it absolutely technique that the temperature of the earth has already long previous up about one level Celsius, 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit.
Again, that doesn’t sound so wide. I mean, if it became 60 degrees while you occur to walked into your private home of job in 62, while you occur to walked out, that now you can’t gaze that worthy distinction. However that additional heat is adequate to have attach wide adjustments in motion. It be the heat equivalent of exploding a Hiroshima-sized bomb each couple of seconds on this planet. And it be been adequate heat to, for instance, melt about half the sea ice in the summer season Arctic. That additional carbon has dramatically modified the PH of the oceans.
We now have seen immense shifts in how water moves around the planet on yarn of heat air holds more water vapor than chilly, and as a result, we query immense will enhance in drought in dry areas and with it these wide and immoral wildfires. And then we query immense will enhance in precipitation, downpour, flood in wet areas.
And all this stuff are combining already to accept immense human charges, together with the early stages of what most of us predict will doubtless be by a long way the excellent migrations in human history as of us hover areas which have merely change into too hot or too salty or too flooded or too dry to allow them to dash on residing there. And I construct now not ought to bid you what the nationwide security, worldwide security implications of that many people on the dash will doubtless be.
MICHAEL MORELL: So, Bill, if we construct now not exchange route, if we construct now not exchange the present residing of policies and present residing of actions that we conduct as human beings, then the attach are we headed? How immoral will this accept? How unsafe will it accept? Is it an existential threat to us as humans?
Bill MCKIBBEN: Brief answer is, Yes, it’s a long way. And it be headed – I mean, it be now not that advanced to roughly notice the attach it be headed on yarn of it be nearly a declare in math.
You perceive, presently rates of manufacturing of CO2 from burning coal and oil and fuel, the earth passes moderately with out notice at some stage in this century through a speak the attach the temperature boost is two degrees Celsius – That is the target, the roughly red line that the area’s governments tried to design Paris in 2015. We’re on a trajectory now for a temperature boost someplace between three and four degrees Celsius.
And if we conclude that, I secure the finest estimate is that our odds of getting civilizations anything else take care of the ones that we know are very slim – honest too worthy disruption, too worthy chaos. Already we can query, you know, areas around the globe the attach it be getting too hot for people to with out declare inhabit.
We now have seen myth temperatures, the excellent reliably recorded temperatures ever in the area in the the relaxation couple of years, with cities in the Center East registering temperatures conclude to 130 Fahrenheit. And, you know, heat index is as high as 160, 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
These are at absolutely the restrict of the human physique’s means to cope. However the science in all fairness determined that on present trajectories, that’s what it be going to be take care of for days, weeks, even months all the intention in which through in actual fact blooming swaths of the planet: worthy of the Asian subcontinent, worthy of the North China undeniable, worthy of the Center East. These are areas the attach billions of of us live.
MICHAEL MORELL: And what has to exchange, Bill, for us to accept on a trajectory to repair this declare?
BILL MCKIBBEN: I mean, what has to exchange is, we have now to conclude burning coal and fuel and oil. And we have now to conclude it very rapid. The Intergovernmental Panel on Local climate Switch residing up by the UN, which is our predominant scientific physique on these matters, issued a characterize in October 2018. It said that except we had essentially remodeled our energy programs by the 300 and sixty five days 2030, that our potentialities of meeting the targets residing in Paris were in actual fact nil.
And they outlined that major transformation as decreasing in half our emissions. So that’s a wide job, in actual fact labor. It be severely labor on yarn of we have now to squeeze it into 10 years in preference to the 40 that we would possibly have had if the fossil fuel industry hadn’t wasted our time with its disinformation campaigns.
However that’s now not necessarily an very unlikely process. The dramatic lower in the worth of solar and wind vitality has modified the game in a few ideas. And there are in actual fact crucial consultants, of us take care of Designate Jacobson at Stanford, who have printed grand guides as to how each speak and nearly each country on earth would possibly well meet these targets by 2030, 2035 at prices which would possibly well be now not excellent real looking, which would possibly well be a wide good purchase while you occur to compare them with searching out for to pay for the distress that comes from climate exchange.
MICHAEL MORELL: So how worthy of what you honest talked about – I secure here is at risk of be a immediate search files from. How worthy of what you honest talked about is permitted science and the intention in which worthy of it’s a long way in dispute?
BILL MCKIBBEN: There in actual fact is now not any dispute for the length of the scientific files relating to the fundamental trajectory of the attach we’re going. And there in actual fact hasn’t been for a really very prolonged time. The science on climate exchange in actual fact became a topic of consensus by the mid 1990s.
I mean, there would possibly be wide amounts of work to be performed relating to the total various, detailed substances of it, on yarn of it be an experiment that we have now by no technique implemented forward of on this planet, Or, in actuality, nature’s roughly carried it out about a occasions over the route of Earth’s history: each four or 5 of these huge mass-extinction occasions which had been ended in by adjustments in the chemistry of the environment. However we weren’t around to see them. So we construct now not know exactly how it performs out. However the fundamental science of climate exchange is largely settled.
MICHAEL MORELL: And the attach does climate denial come from?
BILL MCKIBBEN: Local climate denial comes from the truth that one in every of the richest industries on Earth would have to resign its industry mannequin if we took climate exchange seriously. I mean, there would possibly be no thriller relating to the attach it comes from. It came from the in actual fact careful, calculated efforts of the fossil fuel industry to mark sure we didn’t act.
And as I speak, we have now now had huge investigative reporting making that determined in each intention. And, you know, the good news is that in the spoil, after 30 years, that climate denial is carrying off. I mean, clearly it unexcited infects of us take care of Donald Trump. However it absolutely’s now not easy to judge that even amongst his supporters, there would possibly be many these that utilize him seriously as a offer of scientific files.
For the the relaxation of the area, even for the oil corporations, now, at this level, they’ve no decision but to admit that that truth, in actuality, is precise. And now they’re honest engaged in a roughly ongoing effort to delay and postpone the inevitable.
MICHAEL MORELL: So, Bill, I are searching out for to examine a quotes out of your e book that I found in actual fact grand, and I honest are searching out for to accept you to react to them. So the first one is, “We now have feeble more energy and sources for the length of the the relaxation 35 years than in all of human history.”
BILL MCKIBBEN: Right here is what I became searching out for to claim about ‘leverage’ forward of, the roughly momentum of our declare. You perceive, I wrote the first e book about climate exchange in 1989. Human beings have emitted more CO2 since that e book came out than in all of human history forward of it. We now had been powering pell-mell forward, even in the face of the stiffest warnings from the scientific community.
MICHAEL MORELL; The 2nd one, which you’ll need which you’ll need talked a runt bit bit about already, is, “The rapid degradation of the planet’s bodily programs that became unexcited theoretical after I wrote ‘The Pause of Nature’ is now underway.”
BILL MCKIBBEN: Yeah and clearly it be honest painful to seem around day by day and query the examples of it.
I mean, it be appearing that 2020 will doubtless be both the first or 2nd most as a lot as date 300 and sixty five days on myth, which is largely amazing on yarn of there would possibly be no El Nino underway – that exchange in the Pacific Ocean temperature that most incessantly is required to have a myth temperature 300 and sixty five days.
However now things have honest gotten so hot that we glance, speak, at Siberia, the attach temperatures through your total spring and early summer season had been 20, 30 degrees Fahrenheit above what they ought to unexcited be. The temperature became above 100 degrees north of the Arctic Circle remaining month. And now there would possibly be wide wildfires as the inevitable outcomes of that roughly heat and the dryness that contains it.
You perceive, something take care of here is happening around the globe day by day. Our attention has been transfixed a runt bit by the pandemic so that we’re now not paying perchance as worthy attention. However, you know, we’re having worldwide outbreaks of locusts for the time being, ended in by adjustments in climate patterns and which would possibly well be chewing up a wide quantity of the area’s meals sources. Those form of things are are, I’m jumpy, very worthy what the prolonged poke seems take care of.
MICHAEL MORELL: So the third quote, which you’ll need already touched on a runt bit bit as successfully, is, “The habitable planet has actually begun to shrink; a novel development that will maybe well be the huge yarn of our century.”
BILL MCKIBBEN: Yeah, look around. I mean, one in every of the consequences of the rise in sea stage, which is that participants are starting attach to abandon coastal areas, retreat a long way flung from the shore, on yarn of as sea stage rises and as storms accept more ferocious, that land is becoming much less and much less and much less defensible.
That will poke as the many years attach on on. And it be very now not easy to judge scenarios the attach we at this level arrange to mark it doable for cities take care of Miami to protect themselves in anything else take care of their present construct.
And naturally, that’s excellent all the intention in which during the area in spades, on yarn of many areas around the globe the attach the sea is rising have no no sources to construct walls and seawalls and things on the needed scale.
We additionally query of us having to leave areas on yarn of drought and desertification have honest made it very unlikely to carry plants or to pasture animals. And they also’re on the dash and already on the dash in moderately blooming numbers. Those numbers will honest protect growing. The UN estimate for climate refugees at some stage in this century is as high as one thousand million of us.
MICHAEL MORELL: And then the next one in actual fact, in actual fact caught my attention, obtained to me, in actual fact. “We’re a long way more with out notice than ever forward of in Earth’s history, filling the environment with a exact mix of gases that ended in the 5 huge mass extinctions.”
BILL MCKIBBEN: In the previous we have now had these episodes of mass extinctions thanks to episodes of unparalleled volcanism. You perceive, a thousand years – or more, millennia – of wide volcanic process all the intention in which through immense areas in Siberia, in one case, India in one other.
What’s amazing is that it turns out that, you know, you might well maybe well be ready to conclude the work of hundreds of volcanoes with a like a flash of cars with V8 engines, with, a like a flash of vitality plants. We now have dug up and burned so worthy coal and fuel and oil in the the relaxation couple of centuries that we have now change into a roughly out of regulate volcano ourselves, and CO2 ranges in the environment are rising sooner than we have now ever been ready to undercover agent them rise wherever in the historical myth.
MICHAEL MORELL: And then and then the the relaxation quote, Bill, is “The explicit politics of one country, for one 50-300 and sixty five days duration, will have rewritten the geological history of the Earth.”
BILL MCKIBBEN: Yes, here is the choice in, speak, the Reagan years that we were going to dash in this roughly, laissez-faire, deregulated intention to government allowed us to serve a long way flung from taking motion on climate exchange. And we have now impressed, through a series of worldwide mechanisms take care of the WTO, many of the various worldwide locations in the area to utilize roughly the same intention to things.
And so in this most necessary of periods after we were finding out about climate exchange and when the temperature became starting attach to shift became exactly the 2nd after we rendered ourselves least ready to address it. We roughly unequipped ourselves.
MICHAEL MORELL: So fully 1 more search files from on climate exchange, Bill and I construct now not know exactly how one can ask it. However when will it be too gradual? When will inactiveness lead to a cascading residing of consequences that it’s now not crucial what we conclude at that level – is there this kind of time?
BILL MCKIBBEN: And I secure the finest technique to take into yarn it’s a long way to utilize this thought of leverage and roughly flip it around.
There is been a few detrimental leverage that’s gotten us in the declare the attach we’re. I secure the science in actual fact indicates that the next 10 years is our duration of most leverage to accept things excellent, that the adjustments we mark then – if we’re ready to dash very, very rapid to renewable energy over that duration, that can initiate to slow and blunt the rise in temperature. And if that happens, then we can avert some of the worst.
Now not all of it. We’re previous the level the attach stopping climate exchange is on the menu. However if we construct now not conclude that, then, as you bid, we’re already starting attach to dash previous a series of tipping facets which would possibly well be irreversible. Nobody has a opinion for freezing the Arctic now that it be melted. So 2030 is a necessary and nearly literal deadline.
And also you know adequate about politics and government to know that while that you simply can take care of something to occur in 2030, you’d better birth in on it. I’m with these these that speak that the election of 2020 in this country is at risk of be going to be a really grand one we ever had. And one in every of the causes is, perchance the preeminent reason is, if we construct now not accept it excellent very lickety-split, our potentialities of getting it excellent scurry by incessantly.
MICHAEL MORELL: Bill let’s swap gears and roughly focus on about technology – stroll us through your concerns.
BILL MCKIBBEN: I’m as you might well maybe well be ready to bid in these questions of leverage and scale, and I in actual fact have a sense that we’re now seeing the emergence of new developments which would possibly well be form of the attach climate exchange became 30 years ago. That is, seen as a threat, but we’re now not doing anything else about it. And I’m hoping we can discover it and take into yarn it more intently this time forward of it will get out of regulate.
I’m talking about improved synthetic intelligence, the rise of human genetic engineering, these various technologies that I secure are on a scale that makes it very advanced to judge the roughly human future. And much of the e book is ready this search files from of what it technique to be human.
MICHAEL MORELL: Any explicit technology that concerns you?
BILL MCKIBBEN: As I write in the e book, a legit deal, I secure that the prospect of human genetic engineering, in explicit manipulating fetuses in embryo to accept some residing of desired characteristics is a extremely unsafe step to be taking, and an needless one, since we construct now not ought to conclude it to address illness or defect. We would possibly well conclude it, if we did, with a aim to back and back teenagers. And I secure that’s a immense mistake. I secure humans as we know them, are moderately outstanding creatures and that we have now the total provides that we desire, if we were to make expend of them, to construct the roughly working world. And that is what we ought to unexcited be taking be aware of.
MICHAEL MORELL: So it be easy – successfully, it be now not easy, but it absolutely’s it be easy to mark how immoral the declare will doubtless be if we construct now not accept climate under regulate. How immoral would possibly well the declare accept with the thought that of genetic engineering?
BILL MCKIBBEN: I secure that the ideas of human genetic engineering and synthetic intelligence threaten – now not apocalypse in the same intention that climate exchange does – but threaten us with a future in which humans as humans, if that’s crucial to you, lose worthy of our meaning and snatch in the area.
It be unexcited a philosophical dialogue in a sense, on yarn of these technologies are now not moderately ripe. However as the e book facets out, these are you know – if the oil barons were sure to grasp on to 1 peep of the prolonged poke, here is one other peep that the barons of Silicon Valley are sure to grasp onto. And they’ve a immense quantity of leverage and vitality in our political intention. So the the relaxation of us better utilize seriously the prospect of what is coming.
MICHAEL MORELL: So, Bill, after I carried out the e book, I had two very various and seemingly contradictory ideas in my head. One became that we’re doomed, and the various is that there is hope. Are you able to react to that?
BILL MCKIBBEN: The e book is relating to the ideas that we fight serve. I’ve spent my remaining couple of many years in actual fact as a volunteer organizer in the climate fight. And we have now tried our simplest to face up against the oil industry and weaken its political vitality so we can mark rational exchange. And I obtained to claim, there are indicators that that in the spoil is working. Correct in the the relaxation few weeks, we have now seen plans abandoned for some of the wide pipeline initiatives that we have now been struggling with, the fossil fuel divestment effort that’s now reached 14 trillion dollars’ worth of endowments and portfolios that announced they construct now not desire anything else to conclude with hydrocarbons. That is change into a wide weapon in the fight against the vitality of these corporations.
And it be all thanks to of us’s mobilization. When of us mobilize and fight, then we have now a probability even against the huge odds that our unequal society has produced for us. And so I’m hoping we protect doing worthy, a long way more of that, Michael.
MICHAEL MORELL: The e book is “Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out?” The creator is Bill McKibben. Bill, thanks so worthy for becoming a member of us.
BILL MCKIBBEN: Thanks.